"VeloCity 2003 ha coinvolto rappresentanti e delegati di più di 300 città di 44 nazioni diverse. Il Sindaco di Parigi ha voluto in tutti i modi segnalare l’importanza che la sua amministrazione attribuisce al rilancio della bicicletta in città. La conferenza è un crogiolo di idee e di scambi. Affollatissimo, è stato il workshop tenuto dagli scandinavi su come incrementare l’uso della bici anche nelle avversità climatiche. Comunque “per la bici non esiste un tempo inadatto, caso mai sono i vestiti a essere inadatti”, ormai ci sono impermeabili perfetti.Tra le decine di incontri, quelli su come il commercio può essere beneficiato da un maggiore uso della bicicletta e sul possibile sviluppo dell’uso della bici in Africa. Stati Uniti, America Latina, Sudafrica: sorpresa, perché si comincia a puntare sulla bici anche nelle città di tipo americano, quelle più estese e a minore densità. Portland (Oregon) è diventato il nuovo esempio di città che recupera ciclabilità. Il vice sindaco di Amsterdam racconta che hanno appena proibito ai motorini di usare le piste ciclabili e che stanno sperimentando il registro delle bici per ostacolare i furti, l’assessora di Londra annuncia che per dare il buon esempio hanno già messo in bici un migliaio di poliziotti, il sindaco di Copenaghen proclama la sua città come la più ciclabile ma annuncia nuovi progressi. E il direttore del comitato interministeriale francese contro l’effetto serra esplicita la ragione più profonda se per salvare il pianeta bisogna più che dimezzare le emissioni, il ritorno della bicicletta gioca un ruolo decisivo." (stralci da Eco dalle Città)
Temi trattati: 1. L'uso della bicicletta oggi in tutto il mondo: fattori per sviluppare l'uso della bicicletta, indagini dei ciclisti, conteggio automatico di ciclisti, la bicicletta nelle città emergenti; 2. Il ruolo della bicicletta: dai paesi alla grande città: la bicicletta a Parigi e nella regione parigina, storia di tre città capitali nella ciclabilità: Berlino-Londra rispetto a Parigi, città ciclabili Innovative, la biciper lo sviluppo economico e sociale 3. Integrazione della bici nelle politiche globali - prospettive per il futuro: Integrazione della bici con le altre politiche chiave (ambiente, salute), biciclette, città e trasporti: gli ostacoli, la bici: un partner nella creazione di città vivibili, bicicletta e forme urbane, analisi delle politiche di integrazione, la bicicletta nelle politiche nazionali, analisi costi-benefici per le biciclette, modellamento, strumenti giuridici e fiscali a vantaggio della bici, piani di trasporto per aziende e impiegati, piani di viaggio: pratica e pianificazione, storie di città di qualità: la bicicletta nella pianificazione dei trasporti, altre storie di successo, associazioni cittadine di ciclabilità di tutto il mondo, catalizzatori per il successo, bicicletta e intermodalità, intermodalità e P & R, intermodalità nei mezzi pubblici, intermodalità a livello regionale; 4. Strategie ed alleanze: Sviluppo di nuove strategie, il noleggio bici come leva per il cambiamento, ridurre l'uso dell'auto: perché e come?, il ruolo dello shopping nella promozione della bicicletta, salute e bicicletta: la bicicletta, uno strumento efficace per combattere la vita sedentaria, bicicletta e benefici fisici, promuovere la bicicletta per tutti, incoraggiare i bambini ad andare a scuola in bicicletta, turismo e bici 5. Un'efficiente attuazione: processo decisionale ed il ruolo dei gruppi di utenti, il ruolo delle grandi organizzazioni pro bici, strategie per i gruppi di utenti, aspetti tecnici e formazione dei tecnici, rendere accessibile l'esperienza tecnica, benchmarking e audit, formazione per professionisti del trasporto, migliorare le condizioni dell'uso della bici e delle piste ciclabili, come e perché costruire piste ciclabili?, comunicazione, grandi eventi, la pubblicità, promozione dell'uso della bici: strategie di successo, cambiare atteggiamento, la promozione di una cultura della bici, uso ricreativo e quotidiano della bici, condividere lo spazio con gli altri utenti della strada, escursioni in bicicletta, anche in condizioni climatiche difficili?
Atti del Convegno (inglese):
Tuesday September 23, 2003 - Opening of Paris 2003 Velo-city - Moderated by Teddy Follenfant
1) France takes over from Scotland William OROURKE (official from the City of Glasgow Transport Committee where the 2001 Velo-city conference was held) Ladies and Gentlemen, The alliance between Scotland and France is an ancient one and therefore the cultural ties are deep-rooted in both our nations. Thus, it is only fitting that we are both striving to achieve a change in transport culture to encourage more sustainable modes such as cycling and walking. The 2001 Scottish conference was very successful with 500 delegates from 42 countries throughout the world attending. It was the first time that the event had been held in Scotland and between two major cities. It is also the first time that Edinburgh and Glasgow had jointly hosted a major international conference. It provided a unique opportunity to reach and influence the key opinion makers from every sector with an interest in promoting cycling. I am aware of the importance of the bicycle in France. The Tour de France is after all acclaimed throughout the world as one of the most prestigious sporting events. During this week, I look forward to joining you in seeing and hearing about some of the excellent initiatives and projects being highlighted and carried out, not only here in France, but from all over the world. It gives me great pleasure to formally hand the Velo-city conference, which is surely the worlds premier international cycling planning conference series, from Scotland to France and specifically from the great cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh to the great city of Paris. Thank you.
Bertrand DELANO , Mayor of Paris Paris is very honored and happy to welcome the 14th edition of Velo-city. This meeting must be an opportunity for Paris to learn from other cities and get acquainted with what is being done there, some times with more success. Travels in an urban areas pose a democratic, social and public health challenge. It is, in my view, a fundamental cultural stake to fight pollution, imagine, for our urban areas, new travel patterns, new manners to be free, to be alone and with the others, thanks to transportation means that are not harmful to other city dwellers. In Paris, we are attempting to reverse an individualistic, selfish logic that is detrimental to health in favour of a diversified travel offer that gives priority to public transports and innovation: in this strategy, the bicycle must be an instrument of progress and freedom. This congress must be an incentive. It must lead us to call ourselves into question. We have to take a much more forceful course of action, go on building safe cycling lanes. Cycling in Paris must take new momentum. The offer should be sufficiently attractive so that all those who wish to cycle might be sure that they can do it in total safety. Bicycles are one of the alternatives to cars: beyond the place of the bicycle in the city, it is also a question of poetry, friendliness and a way of enjoying life. Thanks to Velo-city, Paris will be a city that puts a smile on the face of its inhabitants. Paris must really give cycling a chance
2) Bike national policies. Tasneem ESSOP, Transport Minister Province of Western Cape Town Travels reflect social inequalities One of the difficulties in organising transport in the province results from the legacy of apartheid. The poorest and mainly black communities have settled in the periphery of cities, forcing them to commute long distances for their administrative and health needs. We see the bicycle as part of an integrated public transport system. Developing the mobility of these underprivileged populations must contribute to improve their quality of life, increase economic investments and strengthen the social fabric.
Jack SHORT (Secretary general, European Conference of Ministers of Transport - ECMT) The needs: information and government commitment Governments are increasingly interested in the question of cycling; but we have very poor information on it. Cycling is incredibly varied among the countries. Bicycle ownership varies from 20 per 1000 in Central and Eastern Europe to 1000 per 1000 in the Netherlands. We know from a survey on 160 cities that bicycle use has remained approximately stable whereas, during the same period, walking has declined and car use has increased. Of course cycling has problems and safety is one of the main ones. But even the number of accidents has declined. What should governments do? Avoid marginalising cycling by defining a real transport policy. Some countries may have different targets: increasing the number of kilometers of bikeways, the number of cyclists, reducing the number of accidents… Cycling is a very small share of investments: only 1% of the budget of transport policies. But the most important thing is to improve safety. To help cities, governments must give them the possibility of creating associations, gathering information and comparing how different cities are working, giving advice to them and, of course, encourage research. There may be a contradiction between the existence of a strong car industry and a strong bike policy but this can be solved through a real government commitment to help the sustainabilily of cycling .
Steven NORRIS (National Cycling Strategies, UK) Building adapted facilities There are 20 million bikes in Great Britain but they are not used very frequently. Hence we dont do a lot for cycling because not many people cycle! We are all inoculated with a very virulent disease called big project hiatus” which allows us to believe that if a project does not cost a lot of money it cant possibly be important! The objective is not to spend as much as for the car industry or public transport but to really change behaviours. What is most needed in Great Britain nowdays is not enthusiasm or money but a technical understanding and the capacity to set up a bikeway network: the biggest challenge facing us is to build a coherent network with carefully adapted facilities. The revival of cycling in great Britain can be noted in the middle-class but not among the underprivileged. But at the same time, cycling sometimes still has a depreciating connotation compared to driving which is an element of social success. Cycling makes sense economically for its use is very cheap; it makes sense environmentally because it is unpolluting; it makes sense in terms of sports and health; of course it makes sense in terms of journey times.
Bernard MARCHAND, historian, university professor Cycling and urban variables 3 elements for a good understanding of the phenomenon? Social segragation in cities that the Urban renewal and solidarity bill (SRU bill, December 2000) is supposed to fight. Since the price of lands is directly linked to the quality of the transport network that gives access to it, cycling permits to reduce a certain loss of value since it can be as fast as driving in the city center and as convenient as walking. Link between cycling and retail trade It is much easier for pedestrians and cyclists to get an information on goods and buy them than for car drivers who only see shop windows from far.? Perception of the distance In a dense urban environment, distances are assessed not in terms of kilometers but in minutes which, unconsciously, involves a notion of speed. Cycling is four times faster than walking. People move out of Paris because they think that they have a better quality of life in the provinces. But it is Paris that makes them live! We musnt weaken the Ile de France region. On the contrary, it is fundamental to develop cycling, fight pollution, improve transport and offer an opportunity to do sport in the city.
Hubert PEIGNE points out that some people think that the richness of the Ile de France region results from its highway network! We must think about the fate of all those who are « excluded » from journeys, who dont have access to them.
Francois MORICONI-EBRARD (CNRS) Density permits to avoid long journeys The mechanization of transport and, later, their motorization have resulted in accelerating the concentration of populations in urban centers throughout the world. This phenomenon is called urban boom, especially in third world countries. The length of journeys has increased over the past years. But in these huge urban centers, a noticeable share of travels concerns very small distances for which non motorized modes of transport would be perfectly adapted. A strong density fosters copresence that is to say the presence at the same place of housing, jobs, services, shops, leisure facilities, etc Copresence permits to avoid long journeys A reversal in the concentration of population in cities, that had been the prevailing trend for several milleniums, has recently been noted worldwide. The centrifugal tendency to move out-of-town is a recent but very powerful phenomenon that, over the past 20 years, has been reversing settlement patterns in Europe. Commuting has now replaced residential mobility that existed in the past. The length of journeys has considerably increased. Low densities in a region make public transport difficult to use and not economically profitable and, in some cases, completely impossible. These new trends to dispersion are more alarming than the size of cities or their excessive density. Dispersion implies new lifestyles that exclusively depend on this factor of distance.
Mr MARCHAND insists on the fact that dispersed habitat is very costly in terms of schools, postal services, transport, etc. Those who opt for this lifestyle expect local autorities to bear the brunt of its cost . But a city like Los Angeles is reversing the trend and wishes to increase density.
Mr NORRIS remarks that the expected growth of the Greater London poses a twofold challenge: modification of the immediate environment of the population and, hence, their lifestyles and the construction of new communities East of London without repeating past urban planning mistakes.
Mr PEIGNE notes that those who begin to take an interest in cycling are not specialists of urban issues and hardly ever request their opinion. He regrets the absence of will to reverse the trend to urban dispersion, especially in the South of France and thinks that it is a matter of urgency to change this evolution through decentralization, for instance, by keeping parking under control in cities. We must solve the problems posed by urban breaks; we must catch up with 40 years during which no cycling investments were made in the national road network; railway stations must be fitted out to fulfill their role of intermodal hubs; housing buildings must provide bike shelters, etc There is a real lack of skills among city planners and architects.
Mrs ESSOP also regrets the lack of commitment of engineers and urban planning authorities. She would like to convert goverment officials to her ideas because nothing decisive can be carried through without them since they are decision makers. She recommends to draw from models that have been successful in other places.
Mr MARCHAND regrets the excessive role of the State in France and the fact that local authorities are not entitled to choose solutions that would be better adjusted to the needs of the citizens.
Mr SHORT underlines that there is nothing like a real political commitment to implement cycling solutions. This commitment must be backed up by a communication strategy on what the stakes really are. Lastly, he offers a technical assistance on the basis of international exchanges to all those who might request it. 3) Presentation of Paris 2003 Velo-city
Denis BAUPIN, Deputy Mayor of Paris, responsible for transport and mobility. This congress must be a starting point for the Parisians: the bike must be an indispensable tool to reconquer the city. Cycling is a daily battle because public transport in the city is the focal point of a wide range of contradicitons: it is still difficult to take space back from cars in order to return it to bikes. We must also fight pollution which is a major public health challenge. A more quiet, peaceful city is also a place where it is more enjoyable to live: cycling is part of an effort to lead a more healthy life. Mr Baupin wishes all the participants an excellent, fruitful and enjoyable congress.
Oliver HATCH, Velo-city international director When Paris was chosen by Velo-city to host the next congress, this was in recognition for the wish of the new municipal team to give a new definition of the concept of mobility and take up the challenge of cycling in Paris. Clearly, not only Paris but every large city and urban area in Europe and the world try to promote sustainability of which cycling is a key factor. One of the central ideas of this congress is to make participants eager to work more efficiently towards this objective and give them the tools to do so once they are back in their country.
Hubert PEIGNE, president of the National Cycling Committee and chairman of Velo-city 2003 steering committee. Initiatives taken in Paris are very important for the whole country because France is a hightly centralized State. People still too frequently study what is done in Paris or by the State although many interesting actions are carried through by our local authorities. We should bother, first and foremost, about people before looking at statistics: who might benefit from cycling and within which framework? We have to be demanding in our contacts with our many French partners.
Abel GUGGENHEIM, Bicycle Defence Movement (MDB) reminds us that many things have changed in France since the mid-nineties: many bikeways have been developed in the cities and cycling has considerably expanded. Today, cycling has become fashionable but we have sometimes moved too fast and wrong steps have been taken. Similarly, cyclists are more and more frequently fined and an advertising campaign is even attempting to marginalize them.
Jean-Renee CARRE, president of the scientific committee, notes that the problems to solve are getting more and more complex because of the growth of large metropolises. Car mobility, which benefits from a privileged situation, makes things even more difficult. Conditions detrimental to the use of bicycles appear and limit the impact of certain local successful achievements. The congress must study these questions and discover new stakes and centers of interest: the whole cycling world is here!
Wednesday September 24, 2003 Cycling and mobility policies - Moderated by Nathaly Nicolas
Heather ALLEN from the Public Transport International Union, UITP The bicycle is a perfect tool to participate in the intermodality of transport. Cycling offers more flexibility than public transport lines and takes you exactly where you want to go. But what about practices and, in particular, the transportation of bikes to which users pay a great attention. The participants in this round table discussion have pointed out the fact that improving transport is a long-term objective even if a few practical solutions can be rapidly implemented.
Lobbying is determining, explained Bernhard ENSINK, president of Fietserbond association in the Netherlands. For instance, bike parks have been set up around railway stations with public funding which has reduced the number of people that use their car. Success is based on studies and a reflexion and not on an empirical approach. In France, users still have reasons to complain.
Anne-Marie IDRAC (RAPT CEO) confirms that the metro is not accessible to persons who have specific needs, contrary to the RER because its operation conditions are limited by the fact that the network is old. Only minor adaptations are possible and transporting bikes is not allowed. However, intermodality is a deliberate policy. The RATP makes efforts to offer services to its cyclist users: caretaking, repairs, rental, touristical information. This is a step by step policy adapted to local situations.
Paul MINGASSON (SNCF secretary general) also recognizes that it is forbidden to transport bicycles on the Paris Marseille TGV (high speed train) because the cars have not been designed to offer this service. For home-to-work travels, the obstacle is linked to the fact that it is necessary to have parking and caretaking facilities. This is a political and local problem that SNCF is studying in concertation with the regions and the communes . Intermodality is a success, particularly for TER (local transport) especially when the organising authority follows the same orientation: the partners involved mustshare the same view. The bicycle brings people to railway stations, the bike policy is not a gimmick.
Mrs ALLEN would like to offer a more interesting alternative to cars in order to attract cyclists. An assistance from local autorities is absolutely necessary. People who use their bike occasionally say they would like to cycle more frequently if this was easier. The muncipalities of Bern, Zurich, Berlin or Gand have taken the right course of action because they have adopted strong policies aimed at sharing the public space between the various users.
Mr MINGASSON insists: efforts must be made to provide a better information to cyclists: guidebooks, billboards, leaflets, internet The SNCF has adopted the principle of a free transportation of bicycles but reservations in TGV is compulsory and costs 10 euros. Interventions in the room The participants are rather reserved about the interest of large information campaigns and believe that it is more efficient to spread the information by word of mouth or direct contact. But the organization of days or weeks during which cycling is promoted in the city or in trains has also a real impact on the use of bikes. Highlighting the enjoyment of cycling is also important. Paying services to cyclists is not systematic in Europe but permits to finance equipments, especially near railway stations. Does intermodality really curb car traffic? It is still difficult to answer: at the present time, 1% of SNCF users come to the railway station by bike. A lot of work has still to be done. Shifting from cars to bicycles remains a difficult task.
Thursday September 25, 2003 Cycling and urban policies. Organized by the Club of Cycling Cities and moderated by Denis Cheissoux
Michel DUCHENE, Deputy Mayor of Bordeaux The bicycle in Bordeaux is primarily a political choice made by the Urban Community. The decision to build a tramway has been backed up by the implementation of a new travel plan for pedestrians and cyclists who now have a network of lanes seperated from car traffic. A wave of protests, especially among shopkeepers, has obliged us to reexamine the cycling plan from a more pragmatic angle and in concertation with the population and neighbours. The revitalization of the city center has thus been carried through in accordance with the decision to devote more space to soft means of transportation and reduce car traffic. In this perspective, the tramway will be accessible to bikes during off-peek hours, the City has bought 2000 bicycles that are available, free of charge, to city dwellers and a Bicycle Center has been created. The use of bikes has considerably grown in Bordeaux.
Michel DESTOT, Deputy Mayor of Grenoble and President of the Group of Authorities Responsible for Transport (GART) Grenoble is a flat and dense city, hence, favourable to cycling. The construction of the tramway was completed prior to the definition of a plan for bike travels. Streets are narrow, which creates difficulties to have various means of transportation coexisting at the same place. It was decided to give priority to tracks rather than cycling lanes because of the risks of accidents. The 7 km long North-South route that crosses the city has been improved: accidents have diminished, bus frequency has increased as well as the number of cyclists. A strong political will has prevailed over opponents among neighbours and shopkeepers. There must be a single authority that organizes transport in order to avoid difficulties in harmonizing transport policies. The State should not withdraw its participation in the financing of Urban Mobility Plans, especially for small cities. Companies also have an important role to play with their staff to develop the use of bicycles.
Annick de MONTGOLFIER, Deputy Mayor of Strasbourg 10 km of cycling tracks are built every year on the territory of the Urban Community but the role of the car is preserved in the city center with the construction of 2 underground car parks. Bikeways are planned along tramway lines, with hoops for parking. Tramways will be accessible to bikes during off-peak hours
François de RUGY, vice president of Nantes Urban Community A two-wheeled vehicles master plan was adopted as early as 1972; it was amplified in 1997 and 2003. It is financed by the urban community and covers 330 km of cycling tracks and lanes. A survey on their attendance has given contrasted results: favourable in the city center and unfavourable on the outskirts. According to the PDU (urban mobility plan), the share of cycling is expected to increase by 8 %, which implies to increase the budget and develop technical resources. In the absence of a national communication campaign on television, cities must organize their own campaign towards the community, in schools for instance.
Michel VAMPOUILLE, vice president of the Ile de France regional Council In the Ile de France region, a slight rise in the use of bicycles has been noted. The regional authorities have shown a real determination in promoting cycling, they have financed many studies on air pollution. Public transports have also been largely encouraged because there is a close relationship between both policies. Pedestrians must not be forgotten either. The region finances between 40 and 50 % of the studies and works for all cycling developments. It proposes green networks contracts and soft traffic charters in order to improve coherence, especially for daily commutation. 120 communes have pledged to adopt the various programmes available but some of them have still to be convinced.
Mr DESTOT remarks that the amost vertuousa cities in Europe are now Italian cities where a real political will exists: nothing can be done without it. The only strategy to avoid congestion in cities is to persuade people to leave their car in car parks near out of town railway stations and offer them an efficient intermodality.
Mr VAMPOUILLE specifies that car parks near railway stations are not the only solution: a good bus, bikeway and taxi network is also necessary. He would like to offer the possibility of finding a bike at the arrival at the railway station.
Jean PERDOUX, president of the Club of Cycling Cities In France elected representatives are really intent on encouraging the development of cycling facilities. The 600 “cycling cities” have played a pioneering role. The main motivation that drives cities to join the club is the opportunity to exchange on cycling developments.
Guy LEBRAZ, from the team of Mr BUSSEREAU, Secretary of State for transport, regrets that taxi-bykes still do not exist in France. He wonders if this is due to a negative image of the activity or the risks it is supposed to imply. The limitation of car traffic in the city center has resulted in a sharp increase in the number of motorized two-wheeled vehicles that too often use cycling lanes or pedestrian sectors. It would be advisable to limit their speed to 30 km/h. In the room,
Mr BERENGER, teacher, notes that motorized two-wheels are much more dangerous for themselves than for the others and also much more dangerous than cars that are more strictly controled during security test. Arent roundabouts an obstacle to the continuity of cycling routes? Their size must be reduced to prevent cars from accelerating which is dangerous for bikes. However, they have the advantage of avoiding a few traffic lights.
Mr BAUPIN, City of Paris, confirms that motorized two-wheels in the city pose a real problem because of their growing number (a 8% rise in a year) and because they are dangerous. There is a problem of control by the police. A reflexion on the integration of two-wheels in cities becomes necessary.
Friday September 26 2003-11-14 Closing plenary session
The future of the bicycle in large cities - Moderated by Teddy Follenfant
Yens CRAMER-MIKKELSEN, Mayor of Copenhagen The bicycle is the most important means of transport in Copenhagen: half of the inhabitants cycle every single day, even the mayor! Otherwise, there would be huge problems of congestion and pollution, like in other large cities. Bicycle traffic, that appeared a hundred years ago in our city, has increased twofold in twenty years. Cyclists have their own cycling tracks on both sides of major roads, over more than 300 km. The most important ones are used every day by more than 10.000 bicycles. It will therefore be necessary to widen these tracks from 2 to 3 m. A 100 km bicycle track that spans green routes and the harbour sector will be built on old railway tracks. A special effort is made to create parking facilities for bikes near very crowded places and in residential areas. The security of cyclists is also extremely important, especially at intersections: traffic lights turn green for them 2 seconds before those regulating car traffic. It is possible to bring bikes with you in trains and metros. These measures form a strong alternative to car traffic. The bicycle has given a very positive image of Copenhagen.
Jenny JONES, Deputy Mayor of London We are making huge attempts in London to increase the access to cycling for it is the quickest way of moving around in the city. After the implementation of the congestion charge to reach the hypercenter, cycling in this sector has increased by 17 %without spending a lot of money and safety has been improved. The fact of having 300 policemen on bikes gives them a more positive image and permits them to get faster to the places where their presence is necessary. The fact that London has bidden for the Tour de France has raised a huge interest. It could give a good example of the positive aspects of cycling. But before hosting the Tour de France we have to improve the cycling network. Of course, there has to be more on-street parking facilities in city centers, near railway stations,schools and colleges and rental must be developed. Zones where speed is limited are absolutely necessary in city centers and certain streets must be closed to car traffic. Lastly, cycle rides (like Wednesday evening on the Champs Elyaes, note from the editors) are a fantastic idea that has to be repeated in London. This is a priority!
Auke BIJLSMA, vice-president of Amsterdam city council In 1997, we had a European summit in Amsterdam and all the heads of State and government got a bike as a gift from our municipality. We wanted to show the importance of cycling in our urban mobility policy. Here 70% of the population own a bike, 80 % of car owners also have a bike. A quarter of travels is made by bike and this figure keeps going up. The cycling policy is no longer a political debate because all political parties agree: without bikes in Amsterdam, the cars cant move any more. The City has created a very dense network of separate cycling tracks, a very strict car parking strategy has been enforced and public transport is constantly improving. But there is still a lot to do in order to deter people from using their car for short trips, to improve the safety of routes used by senior citizens and avoid accidents caused to pedestrians by bikes. The number of accidents has been diminishing over the past years, we have eliminated accident blackspots, reduced car speed, encouraged young people to wear helmets. But we still have to limit the number of thefts: each year 100.000 bikes are stolen even if, since last year, new bikes are identified by a mark and sanctions are taugher. Because of its advantages, cycling has a role to play in the fight against the depopulation of the center of large European cities. Is this respect, Amsterdam wants to set an example.
Denis BAUPIN, Deputy Mayor of Paris The question of space is particularly crucial today in a very dense city like Paris where travel distances are short and, apart from a few exceptions, the relief flat but where car traffic plays an overbearing role. The City authorities have attempted to gradually reduce the space devoted to them with the creation of 4.5 m wide bus lanes shared between taxis and bikes. On the main thoroughfares, a new system will be implemented with three levels: the roadway, a slightly raised cycling track and the pavement. This is aimed at improving cyclists safety. We must also reduce car speed with the multiplication of the number of zones where speed is limited to 30 km/h and the modification of one-way streets: cyclists now travel facing the flow of cars and this is a positive evolution as well as the request to modify the highway code which is not favourable to bikes. The large squares of Paris also create difficulties: they are blackspots for cyclists because they interrupt the continuity of the network. We wish the number of cyclists to significantly increase as of now without waiting until the network is completed in order to create a balance of powers more favourable to them and be able start new developments.
Pierre RADANNE, interministerial mission on the green house effect. There are two types of cities: one where cycling is a combat sport, the other that is enjoyable to live in. Urban traffic must get out of a logic of pressure against the individual. If we manage to calm down car traffic and make cycling more comfortable, part of the population will accept to switch to cycling. Cars produce, during their lives, 32 tons of carbon dioxide (64000 m3). CO2 emissions must rapidly drop fourfold if we want to avoid a climate change. The present mode of transportation cannot be generalized to the whole planet and it is not even sustainable in Europe. A European guideline limiting car speed at 150 km/h is necessary and car consumption must also drop. We must switch to a hybrid type of vehicles that can be reloaded at night to reduce the role of oil in our societies. Public transport and cycling must be developed. Mobility must be kept under control: distances cannot be expanded without consequences. We need a new contract between the transport sector and society: local elected representatives must echo this demand. The bicycle is a mode of transportation that is friendly to mankind. Conclusions
Denis BAUPIN, Deputy Mayor of Paris Thank you to the 782 participants from 44 countries and 294 cities from the world over for the high level of this debate. The bicycle has been in the forefront in Paris during the whole week: the presence of 8000 cyclists on the Champs Elysées has been the highlight of this congress. This will bring gist to the mill of the municipal team that strives to have these proposals taken into account. Thanks to each of you: the cycling community, the associations and the organizers of this congress. Representatives from the city of Dublin (host of Velo-city 2005) We must change our conditions of life for they are not satisfying. We want to work on this and this is why we are going to organize Velo-city in 2005. You are all welcome! We have the highest growth rate in Europe. In 10 years time we have more than doubled the number of users of our public transport system. We have done a lot in favour of cycling and we are even more ambitious. We are going to have a great time! Things have changed a lot in Dublin over the past years and we are still looking for new ideas.
Oliver HATCH, international director of Velo-City I would like to express my gratitude do Denis Baupin for his approach of cycling: I hope that Velo-city will have a lasting impact in Paris and everywhere in France. I would also like to thank Isabelle LESENS for her experience, her passion and her charm: Ill miss working with her. Theres still work in store for us and this will take time but I would like to tell you a last story. One day, in the middle of a forest, there was a terrible head on collision between a tortoise and a snail. The snail was rushed to the hospital where the doctor asked him: what happened to you? Before fainting, the snail answered: I dont know doctor, It all happened so fast! Thanks to all of you.
Linee guida FIAB, pubblicazione FIAB (schede, quaderni), pubblicazione di altri Enti redatta da FIAB.
Documento redatto da un tecnico e/o esperto della FIAB, non ufficiale FIAB.
Documento redatto da associazioni aderenti a FIAB o suoi membri.
Documento di persone o ente esterno alla FIAB, segnalazione documentazione presente in rete.
Documento esterno alla FIAB, segnalazione documentazione presente in rete. In Inglese.
Mentre il primo genere esprime posizioni ufficiali della FIAB (o comunque si tratta di uno "studio" promosso dalla FIAB), tutti gli altri possono essere validi contributi ma che a volte rispecchiano anche elementi non condivisi e/o oggetto di dibattito e di valutazioni diverse (non sempre strettamente tecniche).
FIAB - Federazione Italiana Amici della Bicicletta ONLUS Via Caviglia, 3/A - 20139 Milano - c.f. / p.iva 11543050154